The Role of Occupational Therapists in Chronic Health Conditions

ot job description

Image source –

Occupational Therapists (OTs) are trained to provide therapeutic responses to patients struggling with physical ailments. Their primary duty is to assist people of all age group to engage in their daily activities independently. The injuries, diseases, disorders, disability, and age-related problems affect daily functioning of patients. They find it difficult to perform everyday activities independently. In this respect, the role of Occupational Therapists and Assistant Occupational Therapists is vital because they help these people participate in their everyday activities (ADL). With therapeutic treatments and engagements, they infuse new life and energy in these people and assist them to overcome their disabilities and function in their environments. The course of treatment covers different aspects like therapeutic, environmental, physical, cognitive, and psychological.
The difference between Occupational Therapists and Physical Therapists lies in their treatment procedures. Physical Therapists are medical professionals and provide direct care to patients struggling with health conditions and impairments through diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
Occupational Therapists assist patients in coping with their impairments and disabilities through support activities and therapies. They help patients develop and improve skills to perform their everyday activities independently in all environments and manage their conditions.

OTs also plays an important role in health promotion of people struggling with chronic diseases. According to the Centers for Dis­ease Control and Prevention, 2014 report, seventy-five percent of the funds for healthcare spent on treating chronic diseases. The PEW Centre research report also informs that 45 percent of US adults live with one or more chronic conditions like stroke, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The report also says that 75 percent of aging population over 65 years are struggling with chronic conditions. The chronic conditions are also a major cause of impairments, disabilities, and deaths in the USA.

In this respect, the role of Occupational Therapists is vital for promoting the health of the people, reducing the cost of care, and improving the quality of life and patients experience. They support individuals to participate fully in their activities of daily livings (ADL) in all environments and live meaningful and productive life. The first task is to evaluate the condition of the patient and after assessing, they begin interventions in collaboration with caregivers and patients. They ascertain the extent of impairments and disabilities, and its effect on patient’s activities of daily livings, and physical and psychosocial health.

Their treatment procedures include modifying their lifestyle, and their physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. They assist patients in performing their daily tasks independently, managing their diseases and impairments, and teach them effective health management techniques. They promote self-management and help patients manage their conditions independently. They prepare and assist patients in taking control of their life and health conditions responsibly, and spend a productive life in their environments.

Guide to Registered Nurse Salary

Registered nurses are valued members of the medical team because their training makes them adept in nursing services. Their numbers are also highest in the nursing field because they can handle multiple responsibilities.

In the nursing industry, the job of registered nurse is very promising and flexible. They have faster career growth opportunities, and their demand is also highest for different positions. Their education and training prepared prepare them for multiple nursing roles and services. Even, in the same facility, their roles are changed depending upon the nursing care requirements. RNs can also take their career to new heights by completing advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) training and education. Moreover, on completion, they become Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Family Nurse Practitioner, Certified Nurse Midwife, and Certified Nurse Registered Anesthetist.
The demand for RNs and APRNs is also highest in the nursing industry. They are also paid lucrative salaries for their services. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for RNs will grow by 19 per cent from 2012 – 2020, and additional 526,800 nurses will be required to fill different positions in the same period. The BLS Occupational Employment and Wages, 2013 also estimates Mean hourly wage of RNs as $33.13, and Mean annual
wage – $68,910.

The salary of registered nurses is also not uniform but varies depending upon a number of factors. The OES May -2013 estimates also inform that RN Median wage for starting 10 per cent to 90 per cent ranged from $45,630 to $ $96,320. The basis for the variation in salaries includes education and training, work experience, position, experience, demand, and workplace. The wages also differs from one state to another, cities and metropolitan areas, and type of industries they work. RNs, working in the intensive care units, surgical departments, ground transport services, federal and state government departments, and hospitals can expect higher salaries than their counterparts in the physician’s offices, schools, private nursing homes, and home health agencies.

Similarly, the factors responsible for the salary variation in the states and cities include density of population, nursing shortages, per capita income, number of facilities and work environment. The states that offer best salaries include California, Alaska, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Oregano according to OES survey. In the same way, San Francisco-San Mateo-Redwood City, Metropolitan Division, San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, and Vallejo-Fairfield, are highest paying metropolitans in the US. The best paying cities are clustered in California and include San Jose, San Francisco, Vallejo, Oakland, and Sacramento.

However, nurses must always remember that whatsoever be their salaries and positions, they must be flexible, analytical, humble, compassionate, and caring. They must also possess excellent communication skills, physical endurance, patience, interpersonal skills, and other nursing and general qualities to become a great nurse.

How can You become an Registered Nurse

RN Nurse

Image Courtesy –

Registered nurses are entry-level care workers. Their job description varies as per their work and position, but in whatsoever job or designation they work, RNs must be proficient in nursing care and treatments of patients. They earn necessary nursing care skills and knowledge by enrolling in a nursing school, college or university and completing RN Training programs. Their extensive training and clinical hands-on experience also provide them a supervisory and responsible position in any healthcare facility. They also monitor and supervise CNAs, LPNs, and other health support professionals.

Individuals can pursue more than one path to become an RN. Although, training length and curriculum may vary for different streams, but training programs for all tracks make an RN eligible for NCLEX-RN exam that also award them a certification and licensure. The standard routes for becoming a registered nurse include a) Diploma in Nursing, b) Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN), and Bachelors Degree in Nursing (BSN).

An individual can complete Diploma and Associate program in 2-3 years, depending upon the training providing college or university. The BSN is a four-year long program, and it also has an extensive clinical training compared to Diploma and ADN. The course curriculum includes anatomy, physiology, psychology, chemistry, biology, geriatric nursing, mental health, surgical, and Medical nursing, nutrition, microbiology, and others.

However, training program only provides the nursing competencies to an individual, but to perform as an RN, and to enter a nursing profession, a student must prove their competency level by passing the NCLEX-RN exam. The exam is specifically developed to measure the knowledge and skills of the candidates for performing safe care and treatment on patients, and for awarding Certification to successful candidates. The success in the exam and Certification also make the students eligible for a Licensure that is essential for practicing as a registered nurse.

Ohio Department of Education – OAA Practice Test

Filed under: Practice Test by No Comments »

In the state of Ohio, the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) is entrusted with the responsibility for overseeing and monitoring the public school districts, charter schools, joint vocational school districts, educational service centres and regional education providers, private schools, and childcare and early learning programs. The ODE also provides Achievement Assessment and Practice test for 3-8 grade students.

As of 2003, ODE has developed and released assessment tests in reading, writing, science, mathematics, and social studies to assess the state’s required achievements for grades 3 through 8. These assessments tests are known as the Ohio Achievement Assessments (OAA) test. The basic purpose of the test is to find out how far students have managed to learn the reading, writing, and subjects. The evaluation report of the test also decides if the student is ready to promote to the next grade. The tests for different grades are also different. For example, Maths assessment is for grade three through eight, whereas as Science assessment is for 5-8.

The Assessment tests are based on the state’s Academic Content Standards, and specifically designed and created for the students of Ohio. The tests are federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) needs for all states to assess the students knowledge on reading and mathematics and their ability to meet the Academic Content Standards because the results of the test are taken as a pointer for finding out which school, districts, and students require additional resources to meeting the required state Academic Content Standards.

Although, Ohio Test Results evaluates a student’s knowledge on the subject for promotion to the next class, teachers also verify the child’s classroom attendance, class work, and participation to decide promotion of the child. A test score of 400 for each assessment is essential to meet the required proficiency level. The score report is indicative of difficulties faced by the child in learning expected knowledge and skills for that grade.

There are a number of resources for improving performance of the child and prominent among them include:

  • The Success Website contains released test questions on previous assessments with correct and incorrect options and a mini-lesson. The families, teachers, and students can review these online assessment test questions. The students can view these lessons to understand each question’s concept.
  • Student can attempt Online Practice Tests on the Success Web site, or teachers can ask students to complete a specific existing test for homework. The teacher can also create a test based on content standards and ask students to attempt it.
  • Parents can find suggested activities on the Family Score Reports that relate to certain skills child can practice for improvement.
  • The Success Web site also provides additional instructional links on the website’s “Resource” section.
  • The state government’s educational site also offers downloadable link for the 3-8 Achievement Assessments Practice Tests.
  • ODE’s website also provides released test materials for Achievement Assessments 3 through 8.

The ODE offered Practice Tests are best ways to assess the competency level of students and the Achievement Assessments test questions types. The sample tests are available for different subjects including reading, writing, mathematics, social science, science.

Evaluate Exam Preparation through CNA Practice Test

CNA Practice Test or Sample Test is a test preparation tool through which the competency level of nursing students can be assessed. Practice Test features are identical to original CNA exam.

CNA Test has become necessary due to the ongoing economic slowdown, employment crisis and mass employee layoff because the success in the CNA exam nursing assistants to get certified and perform in varied health care settings as a certified nursing assistant. However, it is found that many nursing students fail in the certification test because they are not confident on attempting the test, lack test preparation, nervous, and inadequate knowledge of original test questions, features, and process.

Therefore, Nurse Aide Sample Test is developed for helping potential nursing aide students pass the competency exam the first attempt. The designs and features of both tests are alike and include:

  • Features 60-70 Multiple Choice Test Questions
  • Both test processes are exactly the same
  • Test completion times are identical

The students can also evaluate their own competency level immediately after the Sample Test because the answer to each sample question is provided at the end of the test paper.

The entire Practice Test Set can also be downloaded and print for future reference and exercises. The students can either try these sample tests free of costs, or by paying nominal testing charges.

 Practice Test Providers

There are different on-line and off-line Practice Test providers including, community colleges, coaching classes, technical institutes. The sample Test is also offered by D & S – Headmaster, Prometric, NNAAP Practice Test, state Board of Nursing and individual websites.

Although, CNA Practice Tests are offered free of costs, few coaching and educational institutes, Headmaster Caregiver List Practice Exam, Prometric Practice Test,  individuals websites and others charge a fee for testing and registration.

If you are searching for career-based education, you can complete AAS Degree because this program can prepare you for entry-level positions. You can choose your specialty and complete the program for an immediate career option.

Practice Test Benefits

There are a number of benefits that can be gained by appearing in a practice test including:

  • Gain knowledge of actual exam question types
  • Know important facts about testing process
  • Knowledge about Sample Test features helps in boosting confidence level and removes test stress.
  • Test answers assist in finding out lacking skills and knowledge.

Although, Practice Test may be an immense help for the CNA Test preparation, but you must not solely depend on Sample Test for passing the exam. You should also go through test guides and tips, notes, and other online resources for the test preparation. Attending all training classes and clinical hands-on experience, and paying attention to what you are instructed in the classroom instructions and clinical trainings can easily sail you through the actual CNA Exam.

Nurse aides can attempt Prometric CNA Practice Test for actual Prometric Nurse Aide exam preparation because Sample test features and questions are specifically developed to help nursing students pass their CNA exam successfully. The practice test answers at the end of the testing sheet can help access competency level and find out the lacking skills that require further practice and improvement.

Gain Knowledge on CNA Classes Vermont

In the state of Vermont, the VT Department of Health through the Vermont Nurse Aide Registry manages, regulates and monitors various CNA Classes offered throughout VT by different schools and community colleges. The CNA programs must also follow the procedures as required by the federal OBRA-87. The successful completion of the programs allows eligibility for state Nurse Aide Test. If you want to pass the test at the first crack, you can sit for CNA Practice test for advance preparation.

Currently, there are nearly 40 CNA Programs that are approved by the VT state and a student is advised to get list of all approved programs from the VT Department of Professional Regulation before short listing their options for specific approved program and school for admission.

The basic requirements of the CNA Classes Vermont includes, total 75 hours of training that is divided between classroom course instruction and clinical hands-on experience in an approved long term care facility.

It is also to be noted that like many other states of America, that require minimum high school diploma or GED for the admission in the CNA programs, VT do not the require such prerequisites and an individual can enroll in the program even when studying in a high school.

In accordance to federal law, a student is also liable to get reimbursement of his/her tuition fess and testing fees, if he manages to get employed in a long term care facility, after earning of the certification.

The curriculum of the subjects and skills that are offered during CNA Classes Vermont comprises of gaining knowledge on different types of human body systems that include, Endocrine system, Muscular system, Skeletal system, Digestive systems, Lymphatic system, Nervous system,  Cardiovascular system and  Urinary system through the course of Human anatomy.

Similarly, Psychosocial Care Skills informs you about Emotional and
Mental Health Needs of the patients, and Spiritual and Cultural Needs of the patients. The instructions on these courses instruct you on the skills to meet these needs of the patients.

Along with these skills, you will also have to learn various other skills that may be required for offering eminence and skilled cares to patients in different types of health care settings.
You can also attend VT American Red Cross offered programs in Green Mountain, Bennington, VT for quality and rigorous trainings.

CNA Classes Virginia to Obtain Certification

If it is your aim to obtain CNA Certification in the state of Virginia, you must keep in mind that you are required to complete state and OBRA-87 approved CNA Classes Virginia, sit and pass the VA CNA Certification test. But it is also necessary that the program you are attending must meet the principles of the Medicare and Medicaid Services centers and should be completed under the supervision of qualified instructor or RN/LPN. The programs are developed, monitored, managed and regulated by state health agency, VA Board of Nursing. One can also appear in VA nurse aide practice test to gain knowledge on CNA test and test questions.

CNA Classes Virginia comprises of total 120 hours of classroom and practical clinical hands-on training. You are not allowed to work with the residents during classroom instructions but the same opportunities will be granted to you, when you attend clinical hands-on experience, which will be supervised by a RN/LPN.

The classroom instructions and clinical training for the program includes below given skills that are essential while practicing in a hospital or long term care unit:

 The skill of Emergency Care and CPR/AED will instruct you on the emergency rescue cares and first aids that can increase the survival chance of a victim. For example, if the resident under your care suffer a sudden sever cardiac arrest, you must be efficient in offering CPR and AED until proper advanced treatments are provided.

Similarly, you must be fully knowledgeable about Medical Terminology, which are commonly used medical language, such as medical words, phrases, symbols, and abbreviations. The learning of these words will assist you in recording and documenting a patient’s symptoms, history, diagnosis, and treatment.

You are also instructed on additional skills of Nutrition, Promotion and Respect of  Patients’ rights and independence, care of dementia or cognitively suffered patients, communication and interpersonal skills, Human Anatomy, Restorative care, Physiology and other nursing skills.

American Red Cross VA Chapter also offers CNA Classes Virginia in Richmond, Virginia.

CNA Duties

Anyone wishing to be employed in long term care facilities to serve old and disable long term care population, must complete the federal Omnibus Reconciliation Act 1987 (OBRA-87) approved Nurse Aide Training and Evaluation Programs (NATCEP) and become a certified nurse aide (CNA) , because the classroom course Instruction and CNA Practice Test clinical training of the nurse aide program trains you in varied patient care skills and knowledge.

Nurse Aides are direct patient care workers working in a front-line position in a variety of approved health care settings and federally funded Medicare and Medicaid agencies. The federal OBRA-87 legislation was passed by the congress to improve the quality of cares in long term care facilities.

CNA Job Description

It is also necessary to remember that CNA duties largely depend upon the job description of CNAs employed in different positions. The nurse aide job description describes different types of CNA Duties and responsibilities that must be performed by a certified nurse aide working in a long term care facility, hospital, hospice, rehabilitation center, adult care center, nursing home, mental health care center. These medical duties are not only performed by facility based nurse aide but also executed by home health aides, travel nurse aides, school nurse aides and private duty CNA who want flexibility in their work.

You must also remember that the job description of a nurse aide requires execution of common nursing care duties, along with the specific responsibilities that are facility specified. For example, if you are working as a hospital nurse aide, your job description is decided by the specific department of the hospital where you are employed as a nurse assistant. Similarly, if you are employed in a Nursing Home, you will be asked to perform duties on the chronically ill elderly residents, who are there for the long term cares.

A school nurse aide has the responsibilities to look after the health developments of the students. Though, nurse aides working in the physician’s office execute more of clerical and operational duties than providing basic nursing cares. They take the medical history of the patients, collect specimens, attend phone calls, welcome customers, interact with other doctors for patients reports and on occasion they also collect doctor fees.

 CNA Duties

The basic CNA Duties performed by nurse aides in a number of health care settings include:

  • Basic Nursing Cares and Personal Care Skills
  • Infection Control, Emergency Cares & CPR
  • Use of the Safety Techniques
  • Promotion and Respect of the Patient’s Rights and Independence
  • Care of Dementia or Cognitively Suffered Patients
  • Mental Health Care and restorative care procedures
  • Maintain Privacy and respect Confidentiality of the Residents
  • Assist dying patients

In addition, CNAs must also possess excellent Communication and Interpersonal Skills because such qualities are required to provide emotional, mental and spiritual support to the patients and their family members alike. Even working under the direct supervision of a Registered Nurse or Licensed Practical Nurse, your communication skills will assist you in reporting everyday condition of the patients to a Physician or a RN.

CNA Earnings

The earning of CNAs also depends upon the types of CNA duties they execute in different positions. Nurse aides working in intensive care units and private clinics are offered better salary then CNAs working in less important positions such as front office, schools and physician’s office. Nurse aides working as home health aides or private duty CNAs are paid low as compared to travel nurse aides who visit distant places to execute nursing duties for a specific period of time.

Therefore, before you apply for any health care field job, you must try to find out the CNA Job description because the type of employment offered to you also decides your earning capacity. You must remember that by working in an important position, such as in Intensive Care Unit or Operation Theater of the hospital, you can earn higher salary, whereas getting employed in a lesser important position offers you lower salary.

In addition, the nurse aide salary also depends upon work experience, education, location, types of the facility, cities and urban centers, and standard of livings in specific place.

But, whatever nursing positions are offered to you, you must always remember that a nurse aide must possess certain very important qualities which are also essence of nursing cares including compassionate nature, humble behavior, excellent reasoning powers, amicable nature, team work, quick thinking and deciding capacities, meeting the mental and spiritual needs of the patients. The reason being, when long term care patient are brought under your care, they spend most of their time with you and expects you to meet their mental and emotional needs with compassion.

Achieve Your Nursing Care Wish, Join CNA Classes

The OBRA-87 legislation sets numerous national provisions on the nursing homes for quality cares to residents, but the most important requirement is employing a nurse aide who is fully training through a CNA Class of 75 hours including a clinical “hands-on experience” of minimum16 hours. The program must meet the federal education and training standards. The OBRA further requires evaluation of nursing cares and skills of a nurse aide through a competency evaluation test, and setting up a Nurse Aide Registry to list CNAs who have proved their competencies and earned CNA Certification. Each state has been mandated to implement these set of standards for nurse aides working in nursing homes.

CNA Class Curriculum

The state and OBRA approved Nurse Aide classes have 75 hours duration and offered through schools, community and vocational colleges, technical institutes, trade schools, long term care facilities and American Red Cross Classes. The classes are divided between classroom education and clinical skill experience.

Course Curriculum

The course curriculum consists of personal care skills, basic nursing cares, communication & interpersonal skills, restorative care and mental health care procedures, assist dying patients, patient’s right and independence and additional skills.

The clinical expertise can be gained by working among the actual patients in long term care facilities. The clinical hands-on experiences are supervised by a licensed nurse who may be a licensed practical nurse or a registered nurse.

The successful completion of CNA training program also provides eligibility to appear in state nurse aide certification exam to earn a CNA Certification and a “certified nurse aide” credential. The successful candidates who have proved their nursing care and skill competencies are registered with the State Nurse Aide Registry and allowed to work in a variety of health care settings including federal funded Medicare and Medicaid facilities.

Free Nurse Aide Classes

The continuous shortages of nursing personnel in all states to serve chronically ill long term care patients and patients with regular care requirements have made it necessary to introduce attractive incentives to attract higher number of students to enroll in CNA Classes. The state and federal agencies offer a number financial assistance to aspiring nursing students to complete their CNA Classes to gain nursing knowledge and skills.
The financial aids offered to deserving candidates include, state and federal scholarships, loans, loan repayment schemes and grants, private entity loans and scholarships. The best beneficiary of these aid programs are students from low income group or deserving students who want to serve humanity causes by becoming a nurse aide but could not achieve their wishes due to the lack of financial resources. The financial aids play a great role in meeting the career goal of deserving students.

Facility Based Free Classes

Free nurse aide trainings are also offered by a number of long term care facilities, but these facilities also impose certain conditions on nurse aides. They require CNAs to work in the medical center for a certain period of time after the completion of the NATCEP. The consent on these conditions by students allow them to continue their training program free of cost, and all their education and training and examination expenses are borne by the facilities.

Red Cross Class

The American Red Cross also offers CNA classes in the United States through their 36 chapters in different states. The training program of Red Cross is termed as best and qualitative throughout the nation. The class and clinical trainings are very rigorous and requires great degree of dedication from the students. The enrollment in Red Cross program requires meeting certain admission pre-requisites.

Online CNA Classes

Online nurse aide classes are especially designed to suit the needs of working professionals, people staying in the remote classes and not able to attend regular campus based trainings due to the distance problem or individuals with family commitments who want to enter medical field but could not attend the traditional training programs in schools and colleges due to family requirements. Online classes offer flexibility and can be attended from any part of the country and any time through a computer with a Broad band connection.

But, it is also essential to remember that all states do not recognize online trainings, because they want CNAs to complete state approved program through regular classes.  In addition, many online classes also do not provide clinical hands-on experience options. You must therefore must get t complete information on internet based programs and classes before enrollment.